Volume 2, Numbers 3 & 4, 1999

Contents

1. Spirituality and Dialogue .................................................................................................................................................261
     T. D. Lynch and C. Thornton
2. Spiritual Wisdom and Public Administration: Are They Compatible?.....................................................................273
     T. D. Lynch and C. E. Lynch
3. The Promethean Spirit in Public Administration: Spirituality without Crutches ....................................................303
     H. T. Miller and C. Fox
4. Reflections on Maintaining a Spirituality in Government Workplace: What It Means and How to Do It.............325
     W. Bruce and E. F. Plocha
5. Ethics in the Information Age ..........................................................................................................................................349
     D. J. Joyce and L. deLeon
6. Values, Program Evaluation and the New Public Management ..............................................................................383
     P. L. Cruise.
7. The Ethics of Productivity: Toward Increased Dialogue and Customer-Based Accountability ...........................413
     E. M. Berman and M. Van Wart
8. Organizational Design and Ethics: The Effects of Rigid Hierarchy of Moral Reasoning .......................................431
     R. D. White, Jr.

ABSTRACT. This study investigates the relationship between organizational design and ethics. It argues that an organization designed in a rigidly hierarchical structure restricts the moral development of its members and ultimately adversely affects their ethical behavior. Prior research suggests members of organizations structured in a rigid hierarchy exhibit less autonomous behavior when compared to less rigid organizations. As autonomous behavior is also a sine qua non for higher levels of moral development, then the study hypothesizes a negative relationship between rigid hierarchy and moral development. To empirically test this hypothesis, the study compared the moral development of individuals from a rigid hierarchy with individuals. From society-at-large and from less-rigid organizations. The study used Kohlberg's six-stage moral development framework to operationalize different levels of moral judgment, and employed Rest's Defining Issues Test (DIT) as a measurement instrument. The DIT was administered to a cross-section of 480 members of the U.S. military. The military organization was selected because it is a stereotypical rigid hierarchy, with a tall pyramid structure, numerous levels, and an emphasis on obedience and heteronomous behavior. The study found the DIT scores of the military members to average about seven points lower on the DIT than a large adult meta-sample from society-at-large. The difference was statistically significant. The study found the DIT scores of military members assigned to ships to be significantly lower than scores of those assigned to shore units. Because of the very rigid routine aboard ships, sailors are allowed less opportunity to act autonomously. All of the findings support the hypothesis that rigid hierarchy restricts moral development.

ABSTRACT. This article offers ways to be spiritual in the public workplace. First, this article is not about religion but spirituality. Second, this article explains the current American context including the fact that we are a nation of seekers of spirituality. Thirdly, this article presents the elements of spirituality and the attitudes and traits of spiritual people. And finally, this article explains what it means to have spirituality in the public workplace.

ABSTRACT. The ethics of recent productivity improvement strategies requires an open and inclusive dialogue among diverse stakeholders, as well as customer-based accountability. By contrast, the expertise of managers in the past tended to drive a public productivity improvement process that involved little dialogue and customer-based accountability. This article examines fundamental values in productivity improvement and relates these to increased dialogue and customer-based accountability.

ABSTRACT. This is a cry: "Let us face reality!" This article builds on Friedrich Nietzsche and argues against transcendental truth, which is the basis of spirituality. Instead, we need merely to face up to the radical contingency of life in a multi-cultured society. The rules of ethics and morality are contextual and they change over time. Standards are not found but our discourse and interaction establish them. We need to recall Promethean, who was the hero of humans against the gods and provided humans without running start. That is really all we have but that can be enough. In public administration, we need to not look to gods, God, or spirituality; but instead we need to look to what Promethean gave us and face our intractable problems with the spirit of Promethean. We need to reject those that say they have The Truth as they seek to impose their version on us by thrusting under our arm pits crutches, which we do not need.

ABSTRACT. The Information Age, while offering public managers great opportunities in networked organizations and relationships using New Public Management (NPM) techniques, also presents great challenges if traditional public sector ethical approaches and value orientations have been replaced with postmodemist logic. Using the backdrop of NPM and postmodernism, this article examines the ability of one tool - program evaluation - to continue to offer useful information for public managers and the elected leaders they serve.

ABSTRACT. This article argues for the use of spiritual wisdom in the profession of public administration. Given the problems emerging from the information age, this article projects some likely challenges of the new millennium and recommends that we should use all the wisdom available to humankind including the common spiritual wisdom found the primary literature of all the religious traditions. This article argues a fundamental shift has occurred i n the paradigm that is needed to gu ide our actions in the twenty-first century. Fortunately, the existing spiritual wisdom can help us more intelligently meet those challenges especially in the area of ethics.

ABSTRACT. Ethics in the Information Age requires an awareness of abstracted reasoning just as information itself is the integration of abstracted data. Recent works by Gibson and Boisot are employed to introduce the rise of an information society and the abstraction of information upon which we base our knowledge. Several ethical problems of the Information Age are discussed, including personal privacy, the specter of al ternate personae in the virtual world of computer networks, the quality of information, even disinformation, and codes of conduct. The ethical problems inherent in the notion of intellectual property reveal themselves through application of John Locke's natural law of property right juxtaposed against the dilemmas encountered by fictional characters living in a virtual world set just a few years from now. An ethical analysis for the Age of information applies philosophical tenets found in deep ecology, social ecology, communitarianism, and anarchy to the current problems of ethics. In conclusion, the greater degree of abstraction required by ethical behavior in the Information Age requires even greater attention to the philosophers of the past, as well as the philosophies of the present.

ABSTRACT. This article serves as an introduction to this symposium on spirituality and Dialogue. The purpose of the symposium is to explore if spirituality and dialogue have a place in public administration. A brief description of the six articles in the symposium is given. Finally, this introduction presents various complementary themes that the reader can find in the symposium as a whole. In brief, this introduction argues that the twenty-first century will be noted for its decentralization that is prompted by the information age. These phenomena will require a much higher ethical level in public administration than has existed in the past. The current approaches to bureaucracy, religiosity, modernism, and postmodernism are dysfunctional to that need. In contrast, spirituality and dialogue are functional to lifting public administration to a higher ethical plateau.

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