Volume 4, Numbers 1 & 2, 2000

Contents

1. Cross-Cultural Issues in Latin America ............................................................................................................ 1
     C. J. Robertson
2. Attitude toward Advertizing: Does the 7-Factor Model Work in Chile ............................................................ 3
     V. R. Davila and J. I Rojas-Mendez
3. Coverage of Latin American Business and Management Issues in Cross-Cultural
Research: An Analysis of JIBS MIR 1987—199................................................................................................... 21
     M. N. Elahee and S. P. Vaidya
4. Organizational Innovation in Developing Countries: An Empirical Approach............................................ 33
     P. Herrmann and M. Gordillo
5. The Role of Big Business in the Economic Integration of Latin America .................................................. 57
     D. B. Lanoue
6. Moral and Marketing Differences between the United States and Ecuador .............................................. 75
     C. J. Robertson, M. K. Brady and J. J. Hoffman
7. Aspects of Comparative Management in Selected Mexican and Peruvian Firms .................................... 91
     G. P. Sibeck and H. D. Stage
8. Resource Allocation Decisions: The Individual and the Organization ...................................................... 105
     W. B. Hildreth
9. Budgeting Theory through Relational Learning ............................................................................................ 107
     J. P. Forrester and C. J. Spindler
10. Budget Rationality in Policy Oriented State Budget Office......................................................................... 133
     K. Thurmaier
11. The Thin Blue Line Meets the Bottom Line of Community Policing ........................................................ 163
     M. A. Glaser and L. E. Parker

ABSTRACT. Increasingly police departments throughout the United States are in transition between traditional and community-based law en­ forcement. Community policing is thought to increase effective­ ness by engaging members of the community in the coproduction of public safety. At the same time, the nature of police activities naturally encourages the formation of bonds between officers. Al­ though bonds between officers are helpful, organizationally, in many ways, these same bonds can also become barriers between police and the citizens they serve. This "bond-barrier" relationship is popularly referred to as the "thin blue line." The effectiveness of community policing and the use of public safety dollars depends on changes in internal operations as well as the departmental inter­ face with citizens. This paper uses the input of over 300 law en­ forcement officers to examine an agency in transition between traditional to community policing including the application of a systems approach to articulate transitional concerns. In addition, this paper develops a Satisfaction-Mission Expectation Classifica­ tion System and uses it to examine law enforcement officers' per­ ceptions of the organization and its environment.

ABSTRACT. There has been a genuine lack of emphasis in the management and public policy literature on cultural issues in Latin America. This is particularly evident in the ethics and marketing literature. In this paper, the results from two studies are presented which address moral and marketing differences between the United States and Ecuador. In the first study, a comprehensive survey (which includes vignettes for ecological conservation, bribery, sex discrimination, and child labor dilemmas) is administered to 98 multinational managers from the U.S. and Ecuador. Results indicate that certain cultural and moral traits vary across the two groups. In the second study, 425 fast-food consumers from the United States and Ecua­ dor are queried to explore any variation in perceptions of various service marketing concepts. Differences are noted across a range of issues which include service quality to monetary sacrifice.

ABSTRACT. This paper investigates the microbudgeting decisionmaking pro­ cess by budget analysts in a state budget office. Drawing upon the problem representation research in political psychology and the budget rationality research within public administration, the paper develops a microbudgetary decisionmaking model in which budget problems are treated as multi-faceted problems, with each facet viewed through a unique problem frame. A holistic approach to the budget problem yields a budget rationality needed to produce a solution set of acceptable recommendations from the analyst to the budget director and governor. The model may have wider appli­ cability across a variety of governments.

ABSTRACT. In light of the current trend toward economic integration in Latin America, this paper examines the role that big business plays in export development. The analysis is primarily descriptive and fo­ cuses on three factors: the type of industry, ownership, and value of exports of the 300 largest companies in Latin America. The re­ sults indicate that state, private and foreign firms each dominate in particular types of industries. Contrary to the popular assumption that economic integration necessarily leads to development, these results suggest the need for changes in public policy in regard to the current structure of big business in Latin America and its role in export-led development.

ABSTRACT. In this paper we develop a framework to assess the implications of information exchange within the complex setting of governmental budgeting. The framework draws on principal-agent relations and organizational learning, a perspective we call relational teaming. Matching the agency's style of learning with predominant patterns of information exchange (i.e., principal-agent relations-organiza­ tional networks and relationships), we construct a matrix of defin­ able "relational learning" budget behaviors or models. Each model is associated with a pattern of information exchange recog­ nizable to most budgeters, namely the budget process and budget contract. The models are presented as reasonable theoretical benchmarks for assessing budgeting practice and reforms.

ABSTRACT. This research examines the effect of external, organizational and individual variables on the rate of adoption of new technologies in the financial sector in Ecuador. Results suggest that size, functional differentiation, and formalization are the best predictors of adop­ tion of innovations. Additionally, competition is significantly re­ lated to adoption.

ABSTRACT. Results of applying the ?-factor model of global attitude toward advertising to a sample of 373 Chilean students are presented and discussed. Three hypotheses, based on prior US studies, suggest­ ing an inverse relationship between favorable attitude toward ad­ vertising and experience with, knowledge of, and exposure to ad­ vertising are tested. Empirical findings do not support these hypotheses. A factor analysis of the Chilean data resulted in a 9- factor solution in contrast with the 5-factor solution reported in the original test of the 7-factor theoretical model. Suggestions for fur­ ther research are discussed.

ABSTRACT. Mexico and Peru are both striving for economic development, and in doing so, they are trying to use management styles that will achieve their goals. This study is a comparison of selected manage­ ment styles in these two countries  with regard to planning, orga­ nizing, motivating, and controlling,  as these companies attempt to become more competitive in the world economy.
 

ABSTRACT. In this issue of the International Journal of Organization Theory and Behavior a myriad of topics are covered with an eye toward culture, change, and development in Latin America. The actual special issue theme of "Cross-cultural issues in Latin America" was somewhat broadly defined by design. Because this corner of the world has received little attention in the management and pub­ lic administration literature, I thought that it would be interesting to dedicate an entire issue to this topic. As the Western Hemisphere continues to build cultural and economic bridges, it will be inevi­ table that many social science researchers will follow suit with more interest.

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