Volume 4, Numbers 3 & 4, 2001

Contents

1. Dealing With Mature Employees......................................................................................................................................................... 197
     A. Halachmi
2. Retraining and Technological Productivity Paradox ....................................................................................................................... 201
     L. Larwood, S. Rodkin and J. Judson
3. Optimizing the Silver Collar Worker: In the Shoes of Older Employee ........................................................................................ 225
     K. Nichols
4. The New Contingent Workforce: Examining the Bridge Employment Options of Mature Workers ........................................ 247
     K. Shultz
5. Chaos Theory and Postmodern Organizations ............................................................................................................................... 259
     W. Smith
6. The Concept of Fit in Organizational Research ................................................................................................................................ 287
     P. Ensign
7. Cross-Cultural Test of Vroom's Expectancy Motivation Framework:

An Australian and a Malaysian Company in the Beauty Care Industry ............................................................................................ 307
     C. Pearson and L. Hui
8. The Learning Organization: An Empirical Test of Normative Perspective. ................................................................................. 329
     S. Goh
9. Mood: A Review of Its Antecedents and Consequence .................................................................................................................. 357
     J. M. L. Poon
10. Barnard's Cooperative Systems and the Power of the Coworker Effect.................................................................................... 389
     M. S. Love, G. Macy, and T. W. Dougherty

ABSTRACT. Barnard was acutely aware of the social factors present in organizations and their influence on the effectiveness of organizations. He realized that cooperation, and more specifically that systems of cooperation, were a critical, essential element of effective organizational functioning. This paper extends Barnard's conception of cooperative systems into what we call the coworker effect. The coworker effect is as an important factor linking positive individual behavior with the broader social context of the work group. In this article we will discuss the outcomes of the coworker effect and the sources that give it its power. In so doing, we can show how cooperative systems behaviorally impact on organizations and how organizations might be able to marshal this important resource more effectively.

ABSTRACT. This paper focuses on the concept of fit as a topic of research. The concept of fit has been viewed as an internal consistency among key strategic decisions or the alignment between strategic choices and critical contingencies with the environment (external), organization (internal), or both (external and internal). A number of research perspectives or approaches related to fit are presented.Research design problems are discussed: definition of terms, theoretical issues, and empirical issues. Emphasis is on how key variables or dimensions of fit are defined and measured in research. A six-celled matrix is proposed as a conceptual scheme to distinguish different perspectives of fit and to portray congruence relationships more accurately. The matrix includes three common dimensions: strategy, organization, and environment. The matrix also suggests two levels of strategy—corporate or business—and three domains of fit—external, internal, or integrated. These suggest different research perspectives for the study of fit. Examples from the literature are provided to illustrate and support this conceptual scheme. Finally, implications for management and further study are outlined.

ABSTRACT. This article reviews selected literature on the causes and effects of mood. Theoretical mechanisms for explaining the mood phenomenon are also considered. Finally, some practical implications are discussed and specific recommendations are made for research that will advance our understanding of the mood phenomenon and provide useful information to managers.

ABSTRACT. Older workers are increasingly prized in the workplace, though they still represent an undertapped resource. What can be done to meet the needs of employees over the age of fifty so that they can enjoy a sense of self accomplishment, job satisfaction, personal growth and self respect—all while optimizing their contributions to the organization? This article uses the situations of six diverse ''silver collar'' employees to consider meaningful actions employers can take.

ABSTRACT. This paper proposes a framework for understanding the concept of a learning organization from a normative perspective. A questionnaire was developed to operationally measure the described management practice attributes of a learning organization. Using a sample of four organizations and 612 subjects, support was found for three a priori predictive hypotheses derived from a conceptual framework. Implications of the results and further empirical research are discussed, especially for linking learning organization attributes to performance using larger samples and multiple measures.

ABSTRACT. The need to maintain up-to-date technological skills despite an aging workforce makes it imperative that organizations increasingly focus on retraining older employees. This article develops an adult career model based on the acquisition of technological skills and gradual skill obsolescence. The model suggests the importance of retraining and provides practical implications to the development of retraining programs. Suggestions for future research are also offered.

ABSTRACT. This study assessed the relevance of Vroom's expectancy motivational framework in a cross-cultural context. Differences in attitudes for task investment, preferences for work related achievements, and the reward potential of outcomes was assessed with Australians and Malaysians who were employed in similar work contexts of the beauty care industry. Reasons why the Australian employees reported significantly higher job motivation than the Malaysian respondents were identified by examining the three main components of expectancy, instrumentality and valence, of Vroom's framework. The study findings are discussed in terms of the implications they have for the necessary organizational development with Australians and Malaysians who were employed in similar work contexts of the beauty care industry. Reasons why the Australian employees reported significantly higher job motivation than the Malaysian respondents were identified by examining thethree main components of expectancy, instrumentality and valence, of Vroom's framework. The study findings are discussed in terms of the implications they have for the necessary organizational development of businesses in the competitive Asia-Pacific region.

ABSTRACT. This article notes the growing attractiveness of concepts ''borrowed'' from chaos theory in organizational studies. Many of these interpretations display sentiments broadly congruent with a ''postmodern'' approach to organization. Indeed chaos theory itself is presented as part of a similar postmodern shift within natural science. However, these sentiments have been subject to stinging criticism by scientists. Here, the deterministic underpinning of chaos theory is used to show that chaos theory is an entirely modernist enterprise. In this case the indeterministic messages taken by organizational theorists are something of a misunderstanding. Consequently, I discuss whether this is enough to threaten the interdisciplinary status of chaos theory, particularly when it is used in a self-consciously 'metaphorical' fashion.

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