Volume 6, Number 1, Spring 2003

CONTENTS
REGULAR ARTICLES
Pay Differentials Revisited: University CEOs and the Five
Highest-Paid Professors at Private Colleges and
Universities .............................................................................. 1
T.L.-P. Tang and D. S.-H. Tang
SYMPOSIUM
Back to the Future: A Symposium on the Continuing
Influence of Philosophical Thought on Twenty-First
Century Organizations: Part 1 ............................................... 22
P. L. Cruise and C. E. Lynch
Symposium Introduction ...................................................... 23
P. L. Cruise and C. E. Lynch
Plato and the Invention of Political Science ............................... 28
R. C. Chandler
What Jesus Says to Public Administration ................................ 90
L. deHaven-Smith
Niccolo Machiavelli: Moving through the Future as
We Learn from The Past ...................................................... 119
C. A. Easley and J. W. Swain
Mercantilism and the Future: The Future Lives
of an Old Philosophy ........................................................... 131
P. Rich
Jeremy Bentham: On Organizational Theory and
Decision Making, Public Policy Analysis and
Administrative Management ................................................. 144
L. L. Martin

ABSTRACT. Jeremy Bentham (1748 - 1832) was an eccentric 18th Century English genius of many interests. He was the leader of a group of social and political reformers known as the philosophical radicals that included John Stuart Mill. While Bentham never held a government position, his writings influenced many who did. Bentham's ideas and works touch on a variety of disciplines including: administrative management, criminal justice, economics, law, organizational theory and decision making, philosophy, political science, public administration, public policy, social welfare, and sociology. Bentham was a wordsmith adding such terms to the popular lexicon as: "minimize," "maximize," and "rational." He was also the first person to use the term "international." This article looks at Jeremy Bentham's contributions in three areas: organizational theory and decision-making, public policy analysis, and administrative management. The article argues that although his ideas and works have been dismissed as passé in the post 1960s era of selective social consciousness and heightened political correctness, Bentham has much to say that is still important and relevant today.

ABSTRACT. This essay argues that the teachings and ethos of Jesus are needed in public administration to address a potentially fatal weakness in modern industrial republics. The latter are increasingly prone to domestic tyranny and international imperialism, because the values that once constrained them, and which once were thought to be self-evident, have been traced to Christian doctrines discredited by science. The first half of the essay chronicles the failure of the West either to live well without these values, or to find an alternative foundation for them. The second half of the essay shows that this dilemma can be overcome by differentiating the teachings of Jesus from the doctrines of Christianity.

ABSTRACT. Discussion of the theoretical underpinnings of Public Administration necessarily involves an appraisal of the legacy of mercantilism. Few movements have had more lasting influence on the development of Public Administration or roused more controversy. As a philosophy originating in the Elizabethan era, its effects on the structure and form of political governance and organizations were astounding. Although sometimes cast as a relic of a bygone era, this article discusses how mercantilism and its progeny are alive and well in the twenty-first century global economy.

ABSTRACT. Using material translated from the original Greek, this article provides insight into the teachings of Plato and their continuing myriad applications for organization and management. For example, Plato moved beyond the endemic semi-religious speculations of his day to a more rigorous and more precise form of criticism and discussion that explored moral philosophy and logical and metaphysical theory. Moreover, Plato understood and taught that conceptual understanding was different from understanding of the natural world and he concentrated on the form and purpose of an object rather than its material constitution as central to knowledge development. The article concludes with an examination of Plato's effect on modern organization theory and administrative practice.
"The safest general characterization of the European philosophical tradition is that it consists of a series of footnotes to Plato."
Alfred North Whitehead (1985), Process and Reality II, I , I
"And this which you deem of no moment is the very highest of all: that is whether you have a right idea of the gods, whereby you may live your life well or ill."
Plato (348 BCE), Laws, p. 888

ABSTRACT. This article lays out the argument that we may best cope with the unfolding of the future by learning from the past. Here, the past represented by Niccolo Machiavelli's world and thoughts are juxtaposed with the questions and issues raised by postmodern organization theorists. Machiavelli's thoughts contributed to the creation of the world that concerns postmodern theorists and us. Both Machiavelli and postmodern organization theorists address change and strategies for dealing with change, including looking to needs and emotions for working with individuals in change situations and the importance of widespread involvement in governance structures. Building a better future requires learning to deal with human social realities that have been and will be shaped by past philosophers. Consciousness of past philosophers should help in that endeavor.

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