Volume 19, Number 4, Winter 2016

                                                                      REGULAR ARTICLES

Investigating Leader-Member Exchange and Employee Envy: An Evidence from the 
Information Technology Industry ……………………………………………………………………………    419
A. Nandedkar

                                                                             SYMPOSIUM

Symposium on Social Media: Developments in Digital Democracy .............................   452
S. M. Zavattaro
 
Symposium Introduction ...............................................................................................   453
S. M. Zavattaro
 
An Internet Utopia? Government Use of Web Technologies to Engage Citizens in 
the US ...........................................................................................................................    459
L. A. Brainard
 
Designing Successful Participatory Platforms with a Public Intent: Lessons Learned
from Practitioners, Scholars, and Citizen Participants ................................................   479
C. Treisman, T. M. Kelley and E. W. Johnston
 
Concurrent or Integrated Hybridity? Exploring Offline and Online Citizen Participation 
in Invited Spaces ...........................................................................................................   514
W. No, L. Mook, and D. Schugurensky
 

This study investigates the dynamics of supervisor-subordinate relationship, commonly referred in leadership literature as leader-member exchange (LMX), in the context of envy, and its associated consequences. Building on the affective events theory, we hypothesize that employees who do not share a good relationship with their supervisors (low-quality LMX) will be envious of the peers that maintain great relationship (high-quality LMX) with the supervisor. As a result, they will restrict knowledge sharing, and engage in uncivil behaviors. Hierarchical regression was used to test hypotheses on data derived from a sample of 204 software engineers working across various information technology firms in India. The study found support for all of the proposed hypotheses and extends research in the field by demonstrating negative consequences of envy in the workplace.

Public organizations have interacted with citizens through increasingly sophisticated internet-enabled technology. Participatory platforms emerged from Web 2.0 technologies in the mid-2000s as a governance mechanism to engage citizens in the process of effecting social change. Although the potential of platforms is recognized, its successful implementation has faced challenges. To begin to get a handle on how to best design and manage participatory platforms, we conducted an exploratory participatory action research study grounded in two events – The Policy Challenge and NSF Workshop on Participatory Platforms with a Public Intent. Both events communed practitioners, scholars, and citizen participants with diverse experience and expertise conducting and researching platforms. The insights expressed through the events and follow-up interviews and online survey informed our development of a participatory platform lifecycle and design framework to assist designing successful participatory platforms.

The same line gets trotted out again and again: social media are a fad not worth studying. Those studying social media and social networking have been hearing that refrain for nearly a decade now, so clearly something is sticking when it comes to these digital developments. More questions than answers often come up when discussing social media use in government. How do we keep these records public? Are social media really a panacea to cure citizen participation? Are the normative assumptions about said participation correct? What new tools should government officials use and why? How do agencies measure success on social media? The purpose of this symposium is to begin exploring those questions and more related to developments in digital democracy.

Along with the development of information and communication technologies, many local governments have added online ‘invited spaces’ to traditional face-to-face meetings to engage citizenry. The literature suggests that online and offline participation can benefit from each other when they operate in an integrated way (integrated hybridity) rather than in isolation. This study explored the extent of integrated hybrid participation in a U.S. municipal ‘invited space’ by examining almost 4,500 contributions to an online forum, attending offline meetings, and interviewing city officials. The findings revealed that for the most part the two processes operated through separate channels with limited connections between them (concurrent hybridity). The paper concludes that more deliberate efforts in design and facilitation are needed if integrated hybridity is desired.

In recent decades, scholars and politicians have concerned themselves with how to more robustly engage people in public life. “Internet Utopians” have looked to various web technologies, including social media, to be helpful; even transformative. This article looks at extant research on which technologies governments in the US use, whether their use of technologies facilitates offline and online civic engagement, and the extent to which the government-citizen relationship has changed or may be changing. For Internet Utopians the picture is dismal, though not without some bright spots. This article ends with areas for future research.

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