Volume 7, Number 4, Winter 2004

CONTENTS
REGULAR ARTICLES
The Physical and Psychological Effects of Workplace
Bullying and their Relationship to Intention to Leave: A Test
of the Psychosomatic and Disability Hypotheses ......................... 469
N. Djurkovic, D. McCormack and G. Casimir
SYMPOSIUM
Symposium on the Enlargement of the European Union:
Part I ...................................................................................... 498
J.-E. Lane
Symposium Introduction ............................................................... 499
J.-E. Lane
Enlargement of the European Union: Extension and/
or Deepening .................................................................................................. 503
J.-E. Lane and R. Maeland
Fiscal Constitutionalism in the Economic and Monetary
Union ............................................................................................... 530
T. Bräuninger
Fiscal Redistribution in the European Union and the
Enlargement ................................................................................... 555
M. Mattila
On the Difficulty of Making Decisions within the EU-25 ........... 571
A. Laruelle, R. Martínez and F. Valenciano

ABSTRACT. In this paper we measure the effect of the quota on the difficulty of making decisions in the EU-25 Council with the weights agreed upon in the Treaty of Nice. We compute the probability of a proposal being rejected in the Council. This probability depends on the voting rule (and therefore on the quota) and on the probabilities of the different vote configurations. Here we do not consider that all vote configurations are equiprobable, the classical implicit or explicit assumption in the literature. We assume that vote configurations with a minority of member states in favour of the proposal have a null probability, with other vote configurations being equiprobable.

ABSTRACT. The difficulties of enacting a constitution for the European Union (EU) reflect the basic problem: What kind of federation is it? The Union has gone through a number of extensions and at the same time has been capable of deepening the integration between member states. The huge 2004 enlargement of the EU to 25 member states poses the question whether this combination of extension and deepening really will go on any longer in the coming years. The risks connected with the entire endeavour have increased with the huge enlargement in 2004, as reflected in the still unresolved issue of the decision-making rules of the key body, the Council.

ABSTRACT. In this article, fiscal redistribution in the European Union (EU) of 15 member states and the enlarged EU is analyzed. Specifically, net fiscal transfers between EU member states are analyzed, i.e. which countries are net beneficiaries, which are net contributors and what factors affect countries' net fiscal balances. The results show that, at present, fiscal transfers among EU member states are partly explained by differences in countries' relative economic prosperity and partly by institutional features that systematically favor smaller EU member states. Small member states can use their overrepresentation in the Council votes to obtain more benefits than their level of economic development alone would justify. If the pre-enlargement level of redistribution is extended to include the new member states, the net costs could amount to 60 billion euros. This means that the net fiscal balance of the current member states would decrease significantly. Furthermore, the Treaty of Nice does not change the malapportionment of Council votes and European Parliament seats, which gives an advantage to small member states in bargaining for transfers.

ABSTRACT. This paper examined the physical and psychological effects of workplace bullying and their relationship to intention to leave. Participants were 150 undergraduate students who had been employed during the last 12 months. Workplace bullying correlated positively with physical symptoms, negative affect, and with intention to leave the job. Partial Least Squares analyses were used to test two competing models for the relationship between bullying, physical and psychological effects, and intention to leave. The results supported the psychosomatic model (i.e., bullying leads to negative affect which leads to physical health problems, which in turn increase intention to leave) but not the disability hypothesis (i.e., bullying leads to physical health problems which lead to negative affect, which in turn increases intention to leave).

ABSTRACT. The Maastricht process sets up economic and fiscal criteria that member states of the European Union are expected to meet in the preparation for and when having joined the third stage of Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). According to EMU rules, the Commission monitors the fiscal behavior of the participants but member states themselves–as members of the Council of Ministers–finally vote on the Commission recommendations. It is therefore questionable whether these criteria actually constrain member states from running excessive deficits. This paper adopts a constitutionalist perspective to address this question by asking how member states will interpret or even change the fiscal rules of the EMU in the future. Council decision-making in the area of EMU politics is analyzed using data on the fiscal positions of old and new member states of the European Union. The findings suggest that the recent enlargement will shift policy outcomes, but, if compared to the situation at the time of the signing of the Maastricht treaty, the effect is rather marginal.

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