Volume 8, Number 4, Winter 2005

CONTENTS
REGULAR ARTICLES
The Behavioral Reactions of Victims to Different Types
of Workplace Bullying .................................................................... 439
N. Djurkovic, D. McCormack and G. Casimir
SYMPOSIUM
Symposium on Critical Theory and Organization Studies:
Integrating Theories and Practices ................................................ 461
A. J. Sementelli
Symposium Introduction ................................................................. 462
A. J. Sementelli
The Challenge of Critical Theory for Those in Organization
Theory and Behavior: An Overview .............................................. 466
A. N. Carr
Beyond the Mainstream: Foucault, Power and
Organization Theory ....................................................................... 495
C. F. Abel
Critical Theory and the Role of Citizen Involvement in
Environmental Decision Making: A Re-Examination ................. 520
C. Ventriss and W. Kuentzel
Critical Social Science and Conflict Transformation:
Opportunities for Citizen Governance ......................................... 541
N. Meyer-Emerick
Critical Theory, Institutions, and Hegemony: Role Obligation
and the Reconciliation of Seemingly Incompatible Goals ........... 559
A. J. Sementelli

ABSTRACT. Literature on critical and institutional theories are often perceived to be incompatible, despite a shared conceptual grounding. By clearly defining and understanding the concepts of "hegemony" and "role obligations" one might address this misconception of incompatibility, and allow the development of a framework to bridge the concepts of institutions and critical theory. This bridge allows the two streams of literature to meaningfully benefit from each intellectual space. This bridge can ultimately be used to inform both theory and practice in the study of organizations.

ABSTRACT. While mainstream organization theory has contributed to making organizations a productive part of society, they have simultaneously contributed to the creation of a "dark side" of organizational existence that stifles the individual, frustrates the attainment of desired social ends and distorts many core values of democratic societies. Mainstream theory recognizes this "dark side," but has been unsuccessful at suggesting how it might be ameliorated or avoided. The writings of Foucault, however, reveal not only how the "dark side" arises but also how it might be avoided so that organizations may develop and pursue interests in common with both society and the individual.

ABSTRACT. Critical theory has rarely articulated an agenda for social change linking theory to practice. This paper provides several examples of "critical theory in practice" and focuses specifically on Fay's Critical Social Science (CSS) model. The methods of conflict transformation are then applied to CSS in order to accomplish two goals. First, political conflicts resulting from decision making can be used to transform both individuals and systems. Second, CSS more adequately accounts for some of the non-rational aspects of human nature, such as our resistance to change, thus improving its catalytic validity as a critical social theory. Together, the processes of CSS and conflict transformation provide a framework for enhancing the potential for citizen governance.

ABSTRACT. The article questions what is meant by the term critical theory and discusses some common misconceptions that have arisen about the meaning of this term. The dialectic logic that was championed by the group of scholars collectively known as the Frankfurt School is outlined and a number of implications for the field of organization and behaviour are discussed.

ABSTRACT. Much of the administrative literature on public participation in environmental decision making assumes that citizen involvement contributes to reflexive deliberations, communication, effective representation, and consensus building in the public sphere. We will argue that for all the intuitive appeal of public participation, it may ironically limit the boundaries of possible change all under the normative guise of democracy and fair and open deliberations concerning environmental issues. In particular, we critically examine the citizen as a stakeholder as one mechanism that obscures as much as it reveals about public participation. To explore some of the implications of this critical approach, Jurgen Habermas and David Harvey's ideas will be examined, who, from their own differing perspectives, contend that the forces of social conflict and change cannot be so easily contained under a public participative approach to environmental decision making.

ABSTRACT. The relationships between different types of workplace bullying and the reactions of victims were examined using six categories of bullying (threat to professional status, destabilization, isolation, overwork, verbal taunts, and violence) and three categories of reactions (assertiveness, avoidance, and seeking formal help). Participants were 127 employed undergraduates. Descriptive statistics and correlations were used to analyse the data. The findings revealed that avoidance reactions were the most common, followed by assertiveness and seeking formal help. As hypothesized, different types of bullying were associated with different types of reactions. Several practical implications derived from the findings were discussed suggesting that prevention is better than intervention.

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