Perceptions of Justice within Leader-Employee DYADS ............... 291
Work and Family Conflict: Can Home-Based Teleworking
Make a Difference ......................................................................... 307
S. R. Madsen
Symposium on Reinventing Public Governance in
Developing Countries: Part II ........................................................ 351
M. S. Haque and G. M. Mudacumura
Shaping Public Management for Governance and
Development: The Cases of Pakistan and Bangladesh .............. 352
New Public Management as a Template for Reforms in
Low-Income Countries: Issues and Lessons from Ghana .......... 378
G. A. Larbi
From Smaller to Better Government: The Challenge of the
Second and Third Generations of State Reform ......................... 408
ABSTRACT. This article contends that the content and scope of "second generation" state reforms in Latin America show a high degree of heterogeneity due to the national contexts and the depth of the changes produced by the earlier reforms. The "third generation" reform is rejected as a valid category. There is no clear distinction between premises or values, roles, and instruments of reform. The "first generation" of reforms constituted the easy phase of state transformation. In the second phase, the difficulties are similar to the ones that Latin American countries faced during 70 years of reformist attempts which constituted the prehistory of this process and ended mostly in failure. By means of a critical analysis of the paradigm of the "reinvention of government", the instrumental challenges implicit in its eventual materialization are reviewed. As an emblematic case, the Argentine experience is used to illustrate the main propositions of this article.
ABSTRACT. Research has shown that, when employees' work-family conflict levels are reduced, performance in the workplace can increase. How to reduce these levels, however, is a complex task. The purpose of this empirical study was to investigate the differences in work-family conflict between full-time worksite employees and full-time teleworking employees (individuals who teleworked from home at least two days per week). Employees (n = 308) in seven for-profit companies in Minnesota were sampled and surveyed using a slightly revised version of the Carlson and Kacmar (2000) work-family conflict scale. The findings indicate that teleworkers had lower levels of overall work-family conflict as well as most of the other work-family conflict variables explored (i.e., strain-based, time-based, work interference with family, family interference with work).
ABSTRACT. This article presents findings and conclusions from a study of the application of "new public management" type reforms in a low-income country context, Ghana. Using case study data from the health and water sectors, including interviews and documentary analysis, it argues that reforms tend to put more emphasis on issues of what to implement and less on issues of how to implement. The evidence provided suggests that some progress has been made in downsizing, decentralizing, contracting-out, and performance contracting in the health and water sectors. In spite of this, the implementation of reforms has been patchy due to capacity constraints. Reforms are fragile and yet to be embedded.
ABSTRACT. The study examined respective perceptions of justice within leader-employee dyads. Questionnaires were administered to 152 such dyads in a variety of organizational settings. Employees' perceptions of interactional justice were found to mediate the relationship between the leader's evaluation of the relationship (i.e., equity and the quality of the relationship), on the one hand, and the employee's evaluation of the relationship and perception of procedural justice, on the other. Both procedural justice and interactional justice were related to job satisfaction through a partial mediation of the employee's perception of the quality of the relationship. The results are discussed in regard to the effect of the leader-member social exchange on perceptions of justice.
ABSTRACT. In line with contemporary trends in the developing world, countries in South Asia are under pressure from both political and civil societies and the international donor community to recast their administrative systems. New tools and practices in public governance have been advanced to remedy structural deficiencies, procedural flaws, managerial incompetence, and weak accountability in the public sector. International organizations emphasize the need to improve the relationship between governance and socio-economic outcome; and accountability, transparency, probity, predictability, and participation are acknowledged as essential ingredients for effectively managing development. This article focuses on two South Asian countries (Pakistan and Bangladesh) and examines the various measures adopted by their governments to reshape governance and public management in recent times.