Volume 9, Number 4, Winter 2006

CONTENTS
REGULAR ARTICLES
Comparing Appreciative Inquiry to A Diagnostic Technique In Organizational Change: The Moderating Effects of Gender ........ 449
L. E. Sekerka, A. M. Brumbaugh, J. A. Rosa and D. Cooperrider
Tacit Knowledge, Nonaka and Takeuchi SECI Model and
Informal Knowledge Processes ...................................................... 490
S. L. Hoe
SYMPOSIUM
A Symposium to Begin A Dialogue About Values Perspectives
in The Public Sector ........................................................................ 503
A. M. Schuh and G. M. Miller
Symposium Introduction ................................................................ 504
A. M. Schuh and G. M. Miller
Value Consciousness and Public Management ............................ 510
T. Beck Jørgensen
The Convergence of Public and Nonprofit Values:
A Research Agenda for the Intersectoral Study of
Representative Bureaucracy .......................................................... 537
K. M. LeRoux and B. G. Sneed
Stakeholder Approach to Bureaucratic Responsiveness:
A Network-Based Framework to Analyze Public Administrator
Value Preferences ............................................................................ 557
T. A. Bryer

ABSTRACT. The environment in which public administrators are working is increasingly becoming one that is based on network relationships and expectations for active collaboration. Within this evolving environment the value preferences of administrators are subject to challenge and possible change. This article offers an approach to understand the dynamics of value preferences of public administrators through the lenses of stakeholder theory and bureaucratic responsiveness. A set of propositions are offered for future empirical study and to begin a discussion on the relationship between responsiveness, value creation, and the ultimate achievement of successful collaboration.

ABSTRACT. The organizational behavior and knowledge management literature has devoted a lot attention on how structural knowledge processes enhance learning. There has been little emphasis on the informal knowledge processes and the construct remains undefined. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance of informal knowledge processes, propose a definition for these processes and link them to the socialization and internalization processes suggested by Nonaka and Takeuchi in the SECI model. The paper offers a fresh perspective on how informal knowledge processes in organizations help to enhance the organization's learning capability. It will enable scholars and managers to have a better understanding of how informal knowledge processes promote tacit knowledge.

ABSTRACT. Many changes taking place in the public sector raise value questions. Examples are New Public Management, mixed governance forms, globalised recipes on good governance, transnationalisation of public organisations and clashes between Christian and Islamic values in most European states. How to deal with value confusion and value conflicts, thus, is an important challenge for the public manager. Stated in 10 normative prescriptions, various strategies are suggested in the paper. The basic questions addressed are two. How can public management distinguish the central values from those of lesser interest? And how can public management handle value conflicts and organisational design conflicts.

ABSTRACT. Organizational development and change may be initiated from two different starting points. A diagnostic approach begins with an examination of problems to assess and correct dysfunction. In contrast, the Appreciative Inquiry approach begins by identifying an organization's strengths as resources for change. An experimental study was conducted to compare the processes and outcomes that arise during the first phase of each approach. Results show that both approaches lead to different but favorable and complementary outcomes. Both participant gender and the gender construction of the dyads in which individuals participated moderate these effects in unexpected ways. The implications for understanding the processes by which both methods work, and the potential for combining them, are discussed.

ABSTRACT. Public administration scholarship has yielded important insights about the extent to which government bureaucracies function as representative institutions. While evidence suggests women and minorities fare better in obtaining higher level positions within government versus the private sector, much less is known about the career trajectories in the third sector. The rise of nonprofit employment has been attributed to widespread government contracting, resulting in a model of government-nonprofit relationships described as complementary and mutually beneficial. Since both are "public-serving," government and nonprofits share many values. Representative bureaucracy represents one such common value. This article explores the capacity of nonprofit organizations in furthering the aims of representative bureaucracy, and proposes a research agenda for the comparative study of public and nonprofit employment.

Go to top