Volume 11, Number 2, Summer 2008

Applications of Q Methodology to a Variety of Policy Process Theories and Frameworks .... 141
S. Day
Symposium on Economic Psychology ............................................................ 172
T. L.-P. Tang
Symposium Introduction .................................................................................. 173
T. L.-P. Tang
Spontaneous and Feedback-Induced Post-Decision Restructuring
of Decision Aspects among Experienced and Novice External Auditors ......... 185
C. G. Lundberg and B. M. Nagle
All in the Name of Change: Effects of Organizational Change on
Performance Measures of Customer Service in the Health Care Industry ...... 220
T. L.-P. Tang and L. S. Timmer
Self-Discrepancy and Impulse Buying: An Exploratory Study .......................... 240
R. Luna-Arocas
Comparative Decentralization: Less Developed/More Developed Countries ... 266
H. Werlin

ABSTRACT. This study explores feedback-induced and spontaneous postdecision restructuring in a complex decision environment. We examine the impact of experience, decision norms, and the actual decision on postdecision restructuring tendencies. Experienced and novice auditors performed an aspect rating task as part of a going concern judgment. After a break, all participants were asked to recreate their decision stage aspect ratings, but only the experiment group received outcome feedback. We find that the restructuring tendencies are impacted primarily by experience and the original audit report choice. The post-decision restructuring more often than not is a result of adjustments made by participants lacking outcome feedback. This spontaneous defense is particularly vigorous when the report choice violates perceived experience-group norms and base-rates.

ABSTRACT. This research examines the effects of organizational change
(i.e., change of the hospital name, chief executive officer (CEO), and
ownership) on objective performance measures of customer services
(hospital beds, payroll, full-time employees, and patients served) in the
health care industry. Archival data were collected from 155 Hospitals in the
State of Tennessee for four consecutive years. During that time period, there
were a lot of mergers and acquisitions (M&A) and organizational changes in
the health care industry in Tennessee. Results suggested that there was a
significant reduction of hospital beds and a significant increase of payroll
during the four-year period. These changes were more significant in urban
hospitals than in rural hospitals. In the four-year period, a change of the
hospital name resulting from a merger had increased the efficiency of
serving customers (patient/FTE ratio), while those without the change had
decreased the efficiency. Our results reveal some evidences that
acquisitions may be related to short-term financial benefits as expected.

ABSTRACT. This paper provides an overview of a form of factor analysis, Q Methodology, and suggests how it might be applied in an institutional analysis setting. Q Methodology provides for a middle ground between positivist and phenomenological methods, and that its usage will not necessarily result in overly contextualized findings that render generalization impossible. The paper's primary focus is to suggest several uses of Q Methodology within different established policy studies frameworks, namely
the Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD) Framework, the Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF), and the policy process as conceptualized by Lasswell's Policy Sciences approach.

ABSTRACT. Nowadays, consumer behavior is more sophisticated and complex than before. In this study, I attempt to analyze the relationship between impulse buying (consumer's emotional side of the consumption) and an individual's self-discrepancy (the difference between what one is and what one would like to be). I propose that a consumer uses impulse buying to lift one's self up and remove one's self-discrepancy. Results from a sample of consumers in Spain established that a consumer experienced self-discrepancy was likely to have impulse buying. Moreover, the larger the self discrepancy, the more one was dissatisfied with one's consumption. Finally, symbolic meanings of products to the consumer were associated with the different areas of self-discrepancy. Clothing is associated with not only one's image in front of others but also one's self-esteem. Therefore, impulse buying in clothing is positively related to one's self-discrepancy in the emotional side of self.

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