Volume 12, Number 1, Spring 2009

Contents

1. Carr, A. N. & Lapp, C. A.
Organization theory and organization behavior: Through the lens of psychodynamics

2. Lapp, C. A. & Carr, A. N.
Compromising positions: The psychodynamics of the death instinct's influence on organizational conflict management

3. Schwartz, H. S. & Hirschhorn, L.
Organization and meaning: A multilevel psychoanalytic Treatment of the Jayson Blair scandal at The New York Times

4. van Eeden, R & Cilliers, F.
Social defense structures in 0rganizations: How a lack of authorization keeps managers from moving to transformational leadership

5. Mann, P. & Chapman, J.
Can an American psychotherapeutic system contribute to British leadership development?

6. Paes de Paula, A. P. & Wood, T.
Pop-management: Tales of passion, power and profit

7. de Swarte T. & Amintas, A.
From sociology of organizations to organizational psychoanalysis: a genealogical approach of a high tech company.

8. Lapp, C. A. & Carr, A. N.
Encapsulation: Expatriates inside a complex world

ABSTRACT. In Postmodern Public Administration: Toward Discourse (1995), Fox and Miller call for a postmodern discourse that can radicalize the reformist tendencies in public administration theory. This first edition neglects a powerful ally that can deepen this view of the decentered subject and illuminate some roadblocks to postmodern discourse theory, Michel Foucault. This paper challenges Fox and Miller's phenomenological notion of the self and offers Foucault's characterization of the subject as an alternative that addresses how selves are created in and through discourse. This paper argues that the redemption of authentic discourse that Fox and Miller desire is not possible precisely because of the nature of the subject as already constituted. However, this does not mean that rich discourse ceases. Political ethics are still possible for deformed and decentered subjects.

ABSTRACT. This article uses Michel Foucault's theoretical work in examining relations of power within the unique context of street-level bureaucracies (Lipsky, 1980). Through Foucault's techniques of discipline (1995), it analyzes how employees and managers are both objectified and selfproduced within collective bargaining agreements from street level organizations. Findings show that 'managers', 'employees' and 'union representatives' are produced but also constrained within these documents. These collective bargaining agreements also serve to 'fix' relationships discursively affirmed as unequal. Constrained by this 'reality', any potential for changing relationships between managers and employees through prescriptions that ask street-level bureaucrats to be 'leaders'; "responsible choice-makers" (Vinzant & Crothers, 1998, p. 154) rather than policy implementers simply carrying out management directives are largely futile.

ABSTRACT. A careful study demonstrates that President Bush has implemented the faith-based initiative as a method of governmentality, one which appears to be biased toward Christianity. This paper examines the definition of Foucault's governmentality as it relates to the ever-expanding structure of contemporary American governance and justifies the categorization of faith-based initiatives as an example of pastoral power. Ultimately, these arguments characterize the current state of governmentality as "born-again," and call specific attention to what appears to be a strong affiliation of "charitable choice" with evangelical Christianity. By relying on evangelical Christianity to govern, the pastoral-panopticon coupled with governmental resources has brought back an older method of regulation which is less obvious in its intrusion, and more dangerous for it.

ABSTRACT. This essay explores a possible anti-essentialist strategy for public administration. The argument presented is twofold. First, the concepts of objective, socially constructed, and experienced reality are explored, concluding that experienced reality is the most practical for public administration. Second, the use of cognitive dissonance to create discourse is proposed as a strategic approach. The essay also suggests that experienced reality and cognitive dissonance offer a way to finesse the control/domination problematic. The work of Michel Foucault provides the central organization of the essay, and the theories of Taylor and Follett are
used as historical examples. The essay concludes with a proposed application of the strategic use of cognitive dissonance.

ABSTRACT. Work overload is an important and often singular objective for organizational interventions targeting nurse satisfaction and turnover in hospital settings around the world. The centerpiece of many such interventions involves the reassignment of nursing tasks to lesser licensed or unlicensed staff in order to provide immediate term relief to over extended professional nurses. These "Substitution Interventions" (SI) evolve from the diagnostic assumptions that "lightening the load" of professional nurses with more plentifully available "others" will provide, even in the absence of other changes, immediate relief to over-extended staff, reducing their growing sense of dissatisfaction and, thus, decreasing their desire or perceived need to look for another job. The purpose of this study is to critically examine the prevailing diagnostic assumptions that underlie "Substitution Interventions" (SI) and, propose and test in a sample of hospital care-givers (n=241) an alternative organization diagnostic model that may aid in understanding their propensity to fall short of management expectations.

ABSTRACT. This paper offers a constructivist theory of governance. It begins by challenging rational choice and institutionalist accounts for neglecting meanings. If we are to take meanings seriously, we need to allow for the constructed nature of governance – governance depends on concepts that are themselves in part products of wider webs of belief. The rest of the paper argues, first, that constructivism is compatible with various forms of realism, and, second, that constructivism is strengthened by recognition of situated agency.

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