Volume 2, Number 1, 2002

CONTENTS

NIGP President's Letter ............................................................................................................................................................................. 1
S. B. Gordon

Understanding the Incremental Nature of E-procurement Implementation at the State and Local Levels ................................................ 5
S. A. MacManus

Procurement Practices in the Singapore Civil Service: Balancing Control and Delegation ....................................................................... 29

D. S. Jones

Performance-Based Contracting for Human Services: Lessons for Public Procurement? ........................................................................ 55
L. L. Martin

Contracting for Public Bus Transit: Do Techniques Employed Make a Difference in Service Outcome? .................................................. 73
D. R. Shetterly

An Analysis of Private Versus Public Sector Responses to the Environmental Challenges of the Supply Chain ...................................... 93
S. New, K. Green & B. Morton

USEFUL REPRINTS

United Nations: Progress of Procurement Reforms .................................................................................................................................... 109

U.S. General Accounting Office Federal Advertising Contracts Agencies Have Discretion in Setting Work Scope and Requirements .... 129
U.S. General Accounting Office

BOOK REVIEW

Handbook for Writing Bids and RFP's ........................................................................................................................................................ 145
A. Sapat

ABSTRACT. This paper examines differences and similarities between private and public sectors regarding green supply: the incorporation of environmental considerations into procurement and supply chain relationships. While there are considerable differences between the sectors, there are two key areas of similarity. Firstly, responses in both sectors are heavily influenced by organisational structure and patterns of decision-making and information flow. Secondly, the success of green supply initiatives appears to be heavily dependent on organisation's ability to align activity with dominant corporate objectives.

ABSTRACT. The article examines the extent that public procurement in Singapore remains under centralized control and how much has been delegated to the line agencies, which are the recipients of the goods and services purchased. The article shows that Singapore has adopted a mixed hybrid model of public procurement. Procedural rules and evaluation criteria relating to procurement are imposed by centralized authorities, which also undertake bulk purchasing. Operational functions such as interpreting the rules and criteria, making purchasing decisions and awarding contracts are performed by the line agencies. The balance thus achieved between centralization and delegation arises from the desire to meet the divergent requirements that shape the government procurement system.

ABSTRACT. The evidence suggests deductions for non-performance and competitive solicitation methods are key determinants of contractor performance. A penalty provision is strongly associated with an increase in unit cost, while a competitive solicitation method reduces unit cost. The evidence is inconclusive for fixed price contract and contract length. The findings support the idea that contracting techniques impact contractor performance. The potential for cost savings may not be fully realized unless techniques that focus on competitive contracting are employed. Future research that addresses contract design factors for other services in other settings will provide information to help policy makers choose among the numerous contract design options.

ABSTRACT. Government's e-procurement system has not caught on as rapidly as has e-Bay! This article examines the slow implementation rate of public e-procurement systems. It challenges the notion that efficiency gains alone can entice governments to leave traditional procurement systems and principles behind. Four traditional procurement principles are reexamined to see whether they are deterrents to e-commerce: (1) low bid wins and that's a must; (2) separation between the vendor and user is desirable to avoid claims of favoritism; (3) fixed price and fixed term contracts are best for government; and (4) open access is absolutely imperative in all situations. The jury is still out as to whether the new commerce is contingent upon a reformulation of these principles.

ABSTRACT. Performance-based contracting is receiving increased attention today as a method of improving the efficiency, quality and effectiveness of government contract service delivery. While professional interest in performance-based contracting is being focused primarily on traditional government services, some of the more interesting applications are actually taking place in the human services. This article looks at performance-based contracting by selected state human service agencies, the approaches being used and results being achieved. The article concludes that performance-based contracting for human services does appear to be accomplishing its objective: changing the behavior of contractors to focus more on performance. The lessons learned by state human service agencies appear to have relevance for larger issues of public procurement.

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